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Nature and origin of metallic ore deposits and how to find them, with emphasis on geophysical and geochemical exploration. Mining methods and mining geology.
Geothermal (or hydrothermal) processes are not only important in the extraction of heat as an energy resource, but they are responsible for the genesis and formation of an important class of economic ore bodies. Geothermal and Ore-forming systems require heat, fluids and permeability for the fluids to transport the heat and solutes (i.e. metals). Both Energy and Mineral Exploration encompasses many of those areas of geology within which many university graduates find employment, and specialist postgraduate courses are recommended for those wishing to pursue professional careers in these disciplines. Geochemical and geophysical exploration techniques are widely used in locating and characterising geothermal reservoirs and ore bodies by identifying chemical and/or physical anomalies that justify follow-up by drilling and other sampling or testing methods. Modern exploration is typically interdisciplinary (i.e. geology, geochemistry, geophysics), concept-oriented and model-driven, whether the buried resource is obvious from the surface geology or hidden. In addition, these conceptual models are paramount to the management (sustainable, economical, environmental) of the resources. In this course, you will learn about the geologic processes involved in forming geothermal and ore resources, as well as the techniques used to define, characterise and explore the resource.In the first 6 weeks of the course, we discuss hydrothermal geology with links to geothermal systems and exploration, and the processes that lead to the genesis and formation of metallic ores. In the following 6 weeks, we focus on the formation of ore deposits, geochemical and geophysical exploration techniques, and conclude with a brief review of coal macerals and their identification. Laboratory assignments will be assessed throughout the course and total 60% of the course grade.
Goal of the CourseGEOL337 introduces students to the fundamentals of geothermal and ore-forming process and their exploration.Learning OutcomesStudents successfully completing this course will be able to:define and explain Geothermal Energyexplain the geologic controls of geothermal systemsexplain permeability and its role in mass and heat transfer in the crustdraw geothermal conceptual models from well data and field observationsunderstand how geothermal energy is createdunderstand how hydrothermal processes are related to ore genesiscan identify and classify ore minerals and textures under the microscope and how they formeddescribe selected ore deposit types in detail and their exploration requirementsselection of geochemical exploration and geochemical data presentation/analysis methodsSummary of the Course ContentThe topics coved by this course are:Topic 1 Geothermal Systems (Darren Gravley, 12 lectures)Geothermal energyGeothermal systems: geologic contextMagmatic-hydrothermal processesPermeability: scales and controlsHydrothermal alterationGeothermal system mass and heat transferConceptual geothermal modelGeothermal production and utilizationGeothermal ExplorationExploring for blind geothermal systemsAmagmatic geothermal systemsEnhanced geothermal systems (EGS) Topic 2 Ore-forming Processes and Exploration (David Bell, 12 lectures)Introduction to ore geology and depositsOre fluid sources and hydrothermal depositsOre fluid migration and depositionPorphyry copper deposits and examplesEpithermal gold-silver systems and examplesMetamorphic hydrothermal systems and depositsWeathering and supergene enrichment of oresGeochemical and geophysical exploration techniquesGeochemical data analysis and presentationCoal & oil shale deposits and rank changes/uses Coal macerals and coal petrographyCurrent and future energy resources
This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attributes specified below:
Critically competent in a core academic discipline of their award
Students know and can critically evaluate and, where applicable, apply this knowledge to topics/issues within their majoring subject.
Employable, innovative and enterprising
Students will develop key skills and attributes sought by employers that can be used in a range of applications.
Biculturally competent and confident
Students will be aware of and understand the nature of biculturalism in Aotearoa New Zealand, and its relevance to their area of study and/or their degree.
Students will comprehend the influence of global conditions on their discipline and will be competent in engaging with global and multi-cultural contexts.
GEOL242 and 15 points from GEOL243-246.
TimetableLectures: 2 lectures per week. Laboratories: 1 x 2.5 hour lab per week (unless ‘no lab’ is indicated), 1 half day field tripWeek # Week starting Lectures Lecturer Labs8 18th Feb Geothermal Energy DG No lab9 25th Feb Geothermal Systems and Settings DG Half day Field Trip (Saturday, 2nd of March)10 4th March Hydrothermal processes & Permeability DG Permeability 111 11th March Hydrothermal Alteration & Permeability DG Permeability 212 18th March Geothermal Exploration DG Geothermal Conceptual Model 13 25th March Geothermal Production and MGMT DG Geothermal Exploration14 1st April Ore-forming processes/deposits DHB Ore petrography 1 Semester Break 18 29th April Ore-forming processes/deposits DHB Ore petrography 219 6th May Ore-forming processes /deposits DHB Ore petrography 320 13th May Weathering of ores/exploration DHB Tui mine ore genesis 121 20th May Ore exploration/coal deposits DHB Tui mine ore genesis 222 27th May Coal macerals/future energy sources DHB Coal petrography
AssessmentLaboratoryGeothermal - 30%Ore - 30%Examination Date TBA in mid-year exam period - 40%
Evans, Anthony M;
Ore Geology and Industrial Minerals : An Introduction
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2009.
Evans, Anthony M. , Barrett, William L;
Introduction to mineral exploration
Blackwell Science, 1995.
Moon, Charles. et al;
Introduction to mineral exploration
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2009.
Robb, L. J;
Introduction to ore-forming processes
Blackwell Pub, 2005.
Rowland, J.V. and Simmons, S.F;
Hydrolic, magmatic and tectonic controls on hydrothermal flow, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand
Economic Geology, 2012.
Recommended Textbooks & ReadingsBoden, D. R. 2017. Geologic Fundamentals of Geothermal Energy, CRC Press, 399p. Rowland, J. V., & Simmons, S. F. 2012. Hydrologic, magmatic, and tectonic controls on hydrothermal flow, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: Implications for the formation of epithermal vein deposits. Economic Geology, 107(3), 427-457.Evans, A. M., 1993. Ore Geology and Industrial Minerals – An Introduction (3rd edition), Blackwell, 390p.Evans, A. M. (ed.), 1995. Introduction to Mineral Exploration, Blackwell, 396p.Robb, L., 2005. Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes, 1st edition, Blackwell Publishing, 373p.Moon, C.J., Whatley, M.K.G., Evans, A.M. (editors), 2006. Introduction to Mineral Exploration, Blackwell Publishing, (2nd edition), 481p.
PrerequisitesGEOL242 is a required pre-requisite, along with 15 points from GEOL243-245.
GENERAL INFORMATIONMarks and GradesThe Department of Geological Sciences uses the following scale to convert marks into grades:100 – 90 A+ 75 – 79 B+ 60 – 64 C+89 – 85 A 70 – 74 B 55 – 59 C84 – 80 A- 65 – 69 B- 50 – 54 C- Below 50 D/EThe Department of Geological Sciences reserves the right to adjust this mark/grade conversion, when deemed necessary.Late WorkIt is the policy for this course that late work is not accepted. Or, late work should be accompanied with a detailed explanation of why the work is late. The work will be marked and marks will be subtracted for each day the work is late. Days late include week-end and holidays. Academic LiaisonAlex Nichols (room 321, HUalex.email@example.comUH, phone (03) 364 2987 ext 94410) is in charge of liaison with students in geology courses. Each year level will appoint a student representative(s) to the liaison committee at the start of the semester. Please feel free to talk to the Academic Liaison or the student rep about any problems or concerns that you might have.Students with DisabilitiesStudents with disabilities should speak with someone at Disability Resource Service. Their office is on Level 2 of the Puaka-James Hight Building (Central Library). Phone: +64 3 369 3334 or ext 93334, email: firstname.lastname@example.orgPolicy on Dishonest PracticePlagiarism, collusion, copying and ghost writing are unacceptable and dishonest practices.• Plagiarism is the presentation of any material (text, data, figures or drawings, on any medium including computer files) from any other source without clear and adequate acknowledgement of the source.• Collusion is the presentation of work performed in conjunction with another person or persons, but submitted as if it has been completed only by the names author(s). • Copying is the use of material (in any medium, including computer files) produced by another person(s) with or without their knowledge and approval.• Ghost writing is the use of another person(s) (with or without payment) to prepare all or part of an item submitted for assessment. In cases where dishonest practice is involved in tests or other work submitted for credit, the student will be referred to the University Proctor. The instructor may choose to not mark the work. Reconsideration of GradesStudents should, in the first instance, speak to the course co-ordinator about their marks. If they cannot reach an agreeable solution, students should then speak to the Head of the Geological Sciences Department. Students can appeal any decision made on their final grade. You can apply at the Registry to appeal the final grade within 4 weeks of the end of the semester. Be aware that there are time limits for each step of the appeals process. Special Considerations ApplicationsIf you feel that illness, injury, bereavement or other critical circumstances has prevented you from completing an item of assessment or affected your performance, you should complete a Special Considerations application form, available from the Registry or the Student Health and Counselling Service. This should be within five days of the due date for the required work or the date of the examination. In the case of illness or injury, medical consultation should normally have taken place shortly before or within 24 hours after the due date for the required work, or the date of the test or examination. For further details on Special Consideration applications, please refer to the Enrolment Handbook or visit http://www.canterbury.ac.nz/exams/special-consideration.shtml. You have the right to appeal any decision made, including Special Considerations decisions. Missing of TestsIn rare cases a student will not be able to sit a test. In such cases, the student should consult with the course co-ordinator to the Head of the Department of Geological Sciences to arrange alternative procedures. This must be done well in advance of the set date for the test.
Week # Week starting Lectures Lecturer Labs8 19th Feb Geothermal Energy DG Geothermal recipe: water, heat, permeability9 26th Feb Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems DG No Lab10 5th March Permeability DG Scales of Permeability11 12th March Hydrothermal Alteration & Permeability DG Geothermal Conceptual Model12 19th March Geothermal Exploration (techniques) JF TBA13 26th March Geothermal Exploration (geologic input) JF TBA Semester Break 17 23rd April Exploring for Blind Geothermal Systems JF TBA18 30th April Exploring for Blind Geothermal Systems JF TBA19 7th May Ore-forming processes DHB Ore petrography 120 14th May Ore deposits and types DHB Ore petrography 221 21st May Ore Exploration DHB Ore genesis and structure22 28th May Ore Exploration DHB Drill-core characterisation
Domestic fee $883.00
International fee $4,000.00
* All fees are inclusive of NZ GST or any equivalent overseas tax, and do not include any programme level discount or additional course-related expenses.
For further information see
School of Earth and Environment